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history, that it was the function of the leaders of a people to make them fearless. western India, Mohandas Gandhi was born on October 2, His parents. Gandhiji. The present attempt to write a biography of Gandhiji must be the Tamil delegates even the sight of others, whilst they were dining. The Gandhi Heritage Portal is a complete repository of authentic information about Mahatma Gandhi with some rare photographs and writings.


Gandhi History In Tamil Pdf

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Gandhiji Biography in Tamil &English - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Gandhiji Biography in Tamil &English. Abridged tamil version of the autobiography Mahatma Gandhi tans unabridged version of " The story of my experiences with truth - autobiography of Gandhi. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October in Porbandar, a coastal town in present-day Gujarat, India. His father, Karamchand Gandhi.

Being very devoted to his parents, he attended to his father at all times during his illness. However, one night, Gandhi's uncle came to relieve Gandhi for a while. He retired to his bedroom where carnal desires overcame him and he made love to his wife. Shortly afterward a servant came to report that Gandhi's father had just died.

Gandhi felt tremendous guilt and never could forgive himself. He came to refer to this event as "double shame.

This decision was deeply influenced by the philosophy of Brahmacharya — spiritual and practical purity — largely associated with celibacy and asceticism. Gandhi saw Brahmacharya as a means of becoming close with God and as a primary foundation for self realization. In his autobiography he tells of his battle against lustful urges and fits of jealousy with his childhood bride, Kasturba.

He felt it his personal obligation to remain celibate so that he could learn to love, rather than lust. For Gandhi, Brahmacharya meant "control of the senses in thought, word and deed. Gandhi earnestly believed that a person involved in social service should lead a simple life which he thought could lead to Brahmacharya. His simplicity began by renouncing the western lifestyle he was leading in South Africa.

He called it "reducing himself to zero," which entailed giving up unnecessary expenditure, embracing a simple lifestyle and washing his own clothes. On one occasion he returned the gifts bestowed to him from the natals for his diligent service to the community. Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence.

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He believed that abstaining from speaking brought him inner peace. This influence was drawn from the Hindu principles of mauna Sanskrit: On such days he communicated with others by writing on paper.

For three and a half years, from the age of 37, Gandhi refused to read newspapers, claiming that the tumultuous state of world affairs caused him more confusion than his own inner unrest. Upon returning to India from South Africa, where he had enjoyed a successful legal practice, he gave up wearing Western-style clothing, which he associated with wealth and success.

Gandhi and his followers adopted the practice of weaving their own clothes from thread they themselves spun, and encouraged others to do so. While Indian workers were often idle due to unemployment, they had often bought their clothing from industrial manufacturers owned by British interests. It was Gandhi's view that if Indians made their own clothes, it would deal an economic blow to the British establishment in India. Consequently, the spinning wheel was later incorporated into the flag of the Indian National Congress.

He subsequently wore a dhoti for the rest of his life to express the simplicity of his life. Gandhi was born a Hindu and practised Hinduism all his life, deriving most of his principles from Hinduism. As a common Hindu, he believed all religions to be equal, and rejected all efforts to convert him to a different faith. He was an avid theologian and read extensively about all major religions. He had the following to say about Hinduism:. When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and when I see not one ray of light on the horizon, I turn to the Bhagavad Gita, and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow.

My life has been full of tragedies and if they have not left any visible and indelible effect on me, I owe it to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. Gandhi Smriti The house Gandhi lodged in the last 4 months of his life has now become a monument, New Delhi.

Gandhi wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita in Gujarati. The Gujarati manuscript was translated into English by Mahadev Desai, who provided an additional introduction and commentary.

It was published with a Foreword by Gandhi in Gandhi believed that at the core of every religion was truth and love compassion, nonviolence and the Golden Rule.

He also questioned what he saw as hypocrisy, malpractices, and dogma in all religions, including his own, and he was a tireless advocate for social reform in religion.

Some of his comments on various religions are: Hindu defects were pressingly visible to me. If untouchability could be a part of Hinduism, it could but be a rotten part or an excrescence. I could not understand the raison d'etre of a multitude of sects and castes. What was the meaning of saying that the Vedas were the inspired Word of God? If they were inspired, why not also the Bible and the Koran?

As Christian friends were endeavouring to convert me, so were Muslim friends. Abdullah Seth had kept on inducing me to study Islam, and of course he had always something to say regarding its beauty.

There is no such thing as religion over-riding morality. Man, for instance, cannot be untruthful, cruel or incontinent and claim to have God on his side. In spite of their deep reverence to each other, Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore engaged in protracted debates more than once. These debates exemplify the philosophical differences between the two most famous Indians at the time.

On 15 January , an earthquake hit Bihar and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Gandhi maintained this was because of the sin committed by upper caste Hindus by not letting untouchables in their temples Gandhi was committed to the cause of improving the fate of untouchables, referring to them as Harijans, people of Krishna.

Tagore vehemently opposed Gandhi's stance, maintaining that an earthquake can only be caused by natural forces, not moral reasons, however repugnant the practice of untouchability may be. Gandhi was a prolific writer. Later Navajivan was also published in Hindi. In addition, he wrote letters almost every day to individuals and newspapers. He also wrote extensively on vegetarianism, diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc. Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books.

Gandhi's complete works were published by the Indian government under the name The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi in the s.

The writings comprise about 50, pages published in about a hundred volumes. In , a revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as Gandhian followers argue that the government incorporated the changes for political purposes. The Indian government later withdrew the revised edition. Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life. Among them, two works stand out: Tendulkar with his Mahatma. Colonel G. Singh from the US Army wrote the book Gandhi: Behind the Mask of Divinity.

In the book, G. Singh argues that much of the existing Gandhi literature has promulgated from Gandhi's own autobiographies and there is little critical review of Gandhi's words and actions. In his thesis built on Gandhi's own words, letters and newspapers columns and his actions, Singh argues that Gandhi had a racial dislike for the native black Africans and later against the white British in India.

Singh's later work with Dr. Tim Watson called Gandhi Under Cross Examination argues that Gandhi himself gave various varying accounts of the famous train incident in South Africa and the authors argue that this incident did not happen as understood today. Christ gave us the goals and Mahatma Gandhi the tactics. Gandhi influenced important leaders and political movements. Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas.

In , notable European physicist Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a later writing about him. Lanza del Vasto went to India in intending to live with Gandhi; he later returned to Europe to spread Gandhi's philosophy and founded the Community of the Ark in modeled after Gandhi's ashrams.

Madeleine Slade known as "Mirabehn" was the daughter of a British admiral who spent much of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi. In addition, the British musician John Lennon referred to Gandhi when discussing his views on non-violence. Vice-President and environmentalist Al Gore spoke of Gandhi's influence on him. Throughout my life, I have always looked to Mahatma Gandhi as an inspiration, because he embodies the kind of transformational change that can be made when ordinary people come together to do extraordinary things.

That is why his portrait hangs in my Senate office: The centennial commemorative statue of Mahatma Gandhi in the center of downtown Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

May 16, Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in India, Gandhi Jayanti. India observes January 30, the day of his assassination, as Martyr's Day, to commemorate those who gave up their lives in service of the Indian nation. The word Mahatma, while often mistaken for Gandhi's given name in the West, is taken from the Sanskrit words maha meaning Great and atma meaning Soul.

Most sources, such as Dutta and Robinson's Rabindranath Tagore: Other sources state that Nautamlal Bhagavanji Mehta accorded him this title on 21 January In his autobiography, Gandhi nevertheless explains that he never felt worthy of the honour. According to the manpatra, the name Mahatma was given in response to Gandhi's admirable sacrifice in manifesting justice and truth.

Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in Gandhi was also the runner-up to Albert Einstein as "Person of the Century" at the end of Martin Luther King, Jr. The Government of India awards the annual Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens.

Nelson Mandela, the leader of South Africa's struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation, is a prominent non-Indian recipient.

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Monument of Gandhi in Moscow. In , the Government of India introduced the Mahatma Gandhi series of currency notes in rupees 5, 10, 20, 50, , and denomination. Today, all the currency notes in circulation in India contain a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi. In , the United Kingdom issued a series of stamps commemorating the centenary of Mahatma Gandhi.

The city of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa—where Gandhi was ejected from a first-class train in —now hosts a commemorative statue. There are wax statues of Gandhi at the Madame Tussaud's wax museums in London, New York, and other cities around the world. Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace Prize, although he was nominated five times between and , including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee.

Decades later, the Nobel Committee publicly declared its regret for the omission, and admitted to deeply divided nationalistic opinion denying the award. Mahatma Gandhi was to receive the Prize in , but his assassination prevented the award. The Prize was not awarded in , the year of Gandhi's death, on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate" that year, and when the Dalai Lama was awarded the Prize in , the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi.

It preserves the room where Mahatma Gandhi lived the last four months of his life and the grounds where he was shot while holding his nightly public walk. A Martyr's Column now marks the place where Mohandas Gandhi was assassinated. In countries with a Southern Hemisphere school calendar, it can be observed on 30 March or thereabouts. Ideals and criticisms Gandhi's rigid ahimsa implies pacifism, and is thus a source of criticism from across the political spectrum.

As a rule, Gandhi was opposed to the concept of partition as it contradicted his vision of religious unity. Of the partition of India to create Pakistan, he wrote in Harijan on 6 October Islam stands for unity and the brotherhood of mankind, not for disrupting the oneness of the human family.

Therefore, those who want to divide India into possibly warring groups are enemies alike of India and Islam. They may cut me into pieces but they cannot make me subscribe to something which I consider to be wrong [ Muhammad Ali Jinnah and contemporary Pakistanis condemned Gandhi for undermining Muslim political rights. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and his allies condemned Gandhi, accusing him of politically appeasing Muslims while turning a blind eye to their atrocities against Hindus, and for allowing the creation of Pakistan despite having publicly declared that "before partitioning India, my body will have to be cut into two pieces".

This continues to be politically contentious: Gandhi also expressed his dislike for partition during the late s in response to the topic of the partition of Palestine to create Israel.

He stated in Harijan on 26 October Several letters have been received by me asking me to declare my views about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and persecution of the Jews in Germany. It is not without hesitation that I venture to offer my views on this very difficult question. My sympathies are all with the Jews. I have known them intimately in South Africa. Some of them became life-long companions.

Through these friends I came to learn much of their age-long persecution. They have been the untouchables of Christianity [ The cry for the national home for the Jews does not make much appeal to me. The sanction for it is sought in the Bible and the tenacity with which the Jews have hankered after return to Palestine. Why should they not, like other peoples of the earth, make that country their home where they are born and where they earn their livelihood?

Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French. It is wrong and inhuman to impose the Jews on the Arabs. What is going on in Palestine today cannot be justified by any moral code of conduct. Gandhi also came under some political fire for his criticism of those who attempted to achieve independence through more violent means.

His refusal to protest against the hanging of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Udham Singh and Rajguru were sources of condemnation among some parties. Of this criticism, Gandhi stated, "There was a time when people listened to me because I showed them how to give fight to the British without arms when they had no arms A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings. He offered non-violence as a method of combating the difficulties Jews faced in Germany, stating,.

If I were a Jew and were born in Germany and earned my livelihood there, I would claim Germany as my home even as the tallest Gentile German might, and challenge him to shoot me or cast me in the dungeon; I would refuse to be expelled or to submit to discriminating treatment.

And for doing this I should not wait for the fellow Jews to join me in civil resistance, but would have confidence that in the end the rest were bound to follow my example.

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If one Jew or all the Jews were to accept the prescription here offered, he or they cannot be worse off than now. And suffering voluntarily undergone will bring them an inner strength and joy But if the Jewish mind could be prepared for voluntary suffering, even the massacre I have imagined could be turned into a day of thanksgiving and joy that Jehovah had wrought deliverance of the race even at the hands of the tyrant.

For to the God-fearing, death has no terror. Gandhi was highly criticized for these statements and responded in the article "Questions on the Jews" with "Friends have sent me two newspaper cuttings criticizing my appeal to the Jews. The two critics suggest that in presenting non- violence to the Jews as a remedy against the wrong done to them, I have suggested nothing new Gandhi's statements regarding Jews facing the impending Holocaust have attracted criticism from a number of commentators.

Martin Buber wrote a sharply critical open letter to Gandhi on 24 February Buber asserted that the comparison between British treatment of Indian subjects and Nazi treatment of Jews was inapposite; moreover, he noted that when Indians were the victims of persecution, Gandhi had, on occasion, supported the use of force.

Gandhi commented upon the s persecution of the Jews in Germany within the context of Satyagraha. In the November article on the Nazi persecution of the Jews quoted above, he offered non-violence as a solution:. The German persecution of the Jews seems to have no parallel in history.

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The tyrants of old never went so mad as Hitler seems to have gone. And he is doing it with religious zeal. For he is propounding a new religion of exclusive and militant nationalism in the name of which any inhumanity becomes an act of humanity to be rewarded here and hereafter.

The crime of an obviously mad but intrepid youth is being visited upon his whole race with unbelievable ferocity. If there ever could be a justifiable war in the name of and for humanity, a war against Germany, to prevent the wanton persecution of a whole race, would be completely justified.

But I do not believe in any war. A discussion of the pros and cons of such a war is therefore outside my horizon or province.

But if there can be no war against Germany, even for such a crime as is being committed against the Jews, surely there can be no alliance with Germany. How can there be alliance between a nation which claims to stand for justice and democracy and one which is the declared enemy of both?

Some of Gandhi's early South African articles are controversial. They are troublesome, very dirty and live almost like animals. We believe also that the white race in South Africa should be the predominating race.

It is worth noting that during Gandhi's time, the term Kaffir had a different connotation than its present-day usage. Remarks such as these have led some to accuse Gandhi of racism. Gandhi in South Africa, — New Delhi: Manohar, They focus in Chapter 1, "Gandhi, Africans and Indians in Colonial Natal" on the relationship between the African and Indian communities under "White rule" and policies which enforced segregation and, they argue, inevitable conflict between these communities.

Tensions escalated until Gandhi demanded immediate independence in and the British responded by imprisoning him and tens of thousands of Congress leaders.

Meanwhile, the Muslim League did co-operate with Britain and moved, against Gandhi's strong opposition, to demands for a totally separate Muslim state of Pakistan. In August the British partitioned the land with India and Pakistan each achieving independence on terms that Gandhi disapproved. In a June leaflet entitled "Appeal for Enlistment", Gandhi wrote "To bring about such a state of things we should have the ability to defend ourselves, that is, the ability to bear arms and to use them If we want to learn the use of arms with the greatest possible despatch, it is our duty to enlist ourselves in the army.

Gandhi's private secretary noted that "The question of the consistency between his creed of ' Ahimsa ' nonviolence and his recruiting campaign was raised not only then but has been discussed ever since. The Champaran agitation pitted the local peasantry against their largely British landlords who were backed by the local administration.

The peasantry was forced to grow Indigo, a cash crop whose demand had been declining over two decades, and were forced to sell their crops to the planters at a fixed price. Unhappy with this, the peasantry appealed to Gandhi at his ashram in Ahmedabad. Pursuing a strategy of nonviolent protest, Gandhi took the administration by surprise and won concessions from the authorities.

Gandhi moved his headquarters to Nadiad , [92] organising scores of supporters and fresh volunteers from the region, the most notable being Vallabhbhai Patel. A social boycott of mamlatdars and talatdars revenue officials within the district accompanied the agitation. Gandhi worked hard to win public support for the agitation across the country.

For five months, the administration refused but finally in end-May , the Government gave way on important provisions and relaxed the conditions of payment of revenue tax until the famine ended. In Kheda, Vallabhbhai Patel represented the farmers in negotiations with the British, who suspended revenue collection and released all the prisoners.

In after the World War I was over, Gandhi aged 49 sought political co-operation from Muslims in his fight against British imperialism by supporting the Ottoman Empire that had been defeated in the World War. Before this initiative of Gandhi, communal disputes and religious riots between Hindus and Muslims were common in British India, such as the riots of — Gandhi had already supported the British crown with resources and by recruiting Indian soldiers to fight the war in Europe on the British side.

This effort of Gandhi was in part motivated by the British promise to reciprocate the help with swaraj self-government to Indians after the end of World War I. The British colonial officials made their counter move by passing the Rowlatt Act , to block Gandhi's movement. The Act allowed the British government to treat civil disobedience participants as criminals and gave it the legal basis to arrest anyone for "preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without judicial review or any need for a trial".

He leveraged the Khilafat movement , wherein Sunni Muslims in India, their leaders such as the sultans of princely states in India and Ali brothers championed the Turkish Caliph as a solidarity symbol of Sunni Islamic community ummah. It initially led to a strong Muslim support for Gandhi.

However, the Hindu leaders including Rabindranath Tagore questioned Gandhi's leadership because they were largely against recognising or supporting the Sunni Islamic Caliph in Turkey. It offered evidence of inter-communal harmony in joint Rowlatt satyagraha demonstration rallies, raising Gandhi's stature as the political leader to the British.

Jinnah began creating his independent support, and later went on to lead the demand for West and East Pakistan. Deadly religious riots re-appeared in numerous cities, with 91 in United Provinces of Agra and Oudh alone. If Indians refused to co-operate, British rule would collapse and swaraj would come. In February , Gandhi cautioned the Viceroy of India with a cable communication that if the British were to pass the Rowlatt Act , he would appeal to Indians to start civil disobedience.

The satyagraha civil disobedience followed, with people assembling to protest the Rowlatt Act. On 30 March , British law officers opened fire on an assembly of unarmed people, peacefully gathered, participating in satyagraha in Delhi.

On 6 April , a Hindu festival day, he asked a crowd to remember not to injure or kill British people, but express their frustration with peace, to boycott British goods and burn any British clothing they own. He emphasised the use of non-violence to the British and towards each other, even if the other side uses violence.

Communities across India announced plans to gather in greater numbers to protest. Government warned him to not enter Delhi.

Gandhi defied the order. On 9 April, Gandhi was arrested. On 13 April , people including women with children gathered in an Amritsar park, and a British officer named Reginald Dyer surrounded them and ordered his troops to fire on them. The resulting Jallianwala Bagh massacre or Amritsar massacre of hundreds of Sikh and Hindu civilians enraged the subcontinent, but was cheered by some Britons and parts of the British media as an appropriate response.

Gandhi in Ahmedabad, on the day after the massacre in Amritsar, did not criticise the British and instead criticised his fellow countrymen for not exclusively using love to deal with the hate of the British government.

Investigation committees were formed by the British, which Gandhi asked Indians to boycott. With Congress now behind him, and Muslim support triggered by his backing the Khilafat movement to restore the Caliph in Turkey, [] Gandhi had the political support and the attention of the British Raj.

Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi homespun cloth be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement.

A Short Note About Gandhiji In Tamil PDF Free Download

Gandhi thus began his journey aimed at crippling the British India government economically, politically and administratively. Gandhi was arrested on 10 March , tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. He began his sentence on 18 March With Gandhi isolated in prison, the Indian National Congress split into two factions, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel , opposing this move.

Also, many Indians of the time struggled with low income, thus vegetarianism was seen not only as a spiritual practice but also a practical one. He abstained from eating for long periods, using fasting as a form of political protest. He refused to eat until his death or his demands were met.

It was noted in his autobiography that vegetarianism was the beginning of his deep commitment to Brahmacharya; without total control of the palate, his success in Bramacharya would likely falter. Gandhi had been a fruitarian, but started taking goat's milk on the advice of his doctor.

He never took dairy products obtained from cows because of his view initially that milk is not the natural diet of man, disgust for cow blowing, and, specifically, because of a vow to his late mother. Brahmacharya When Gandhi was 16 his father became very ill.

Being very devoted to his parents, he attended to his father at all times during his illness. However, one night, Gandhi's uncle came to relieve Gandhi for a while. He retired to his bedroom where carnal desires overcame him and he made love to his wife. Shortly afterward a servant came to report that Gandhi's father had just died.

Gandhi felt tremendous guilt and never could forgive himself. He came to refer to this event as "double shame. This decision was deeply influenced by the philosophy of Brahmacharya — spiritual and practical purity — largely associated with celibacy and asceticism. Gandhi saw Brahmacharya as a means of becoming close with God and as a primary foundation for self realization. In his autobiography he tells of his battle against lustful urges and fits of jealousy with his childhood bride, Kasturba.

He felt it his personal obligation to remain celibate so that he could learn to love, rather than lust. For Gandhi, Brahmacharya meant "control of the senses in thought, word and deed. His simplicity began by renouncing the western lifestyle he was leading in South Africa.

He called it "reducing himself to zero," which entailed giving up unnecessary expenditure, embracing a simple lifestyle and washing his own clothes. On one occasion he returned the gifts bestowed to him from the natals for his diligent service to the community.

Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence. He believed that abstaining from speaking brought him inner peace. This influence was drawn from the Hindu principles of mauna Sanskrit: — silence and shanti Sanskrit: — peace. On such days he communicated with others by writing on paper.

For three and a half years, from the age of 37, Gandhi refused to read newspapers, claiming that the tumultuous state of world affairs caused him more confusion than his own inner unrest. Upon returning to India from South Africa, where he had enjoyed a successful legal practice, he gave up wearing Western-style clothing, which he associated with wealth and success.

He dressed to be accepted by the poorest person in India, advocating the use of homespun cloth khadi. Gandhi and his followers adopted the practice of weaving their own clothes from thread they themselves spun, and encouraged others to do so.

While Indian workers were often idle due to unemployment, they had often bought their clothing from industrial manufacturers owned by British interests. It was Gandhi's view that if Indians made their own clothes, it would deal an economic blow to the British establishment in India. Consequently, the spinning wheel was later incorporated into the flag of the Indian National Congress.

He subsequently wore a dhoti for the rest of his life to express the simplicity of his life. Faith Gandhi was born a Hindu and practised Hinduism all his life, deriving most of his principles from Hinduism. As a common Hindu, he believed all religions to be equal, and rejected all efforts to convert him to a different faith.

He was an avid theologian and read extensively about all major religions. He had the following to say about Hinduism: "Hinduism as I know it entirely satisfies my soul, fills my whole being When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and when I see not one ray of light on the horizon, I turn to the Bhagavad Gita, and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow.

My life has been full of tragedies and if they have not left any visible and indelible effect on me, I owe it to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. The Gujarati manuscript was translated into English by Mahadev Desai, who provided an additional introduction and commentary.

It was published with a Foreword by Gandhi in Gandhi believed that at the core of every religion was truth and love compassion, nonviolence and the Golden Rule. He also questioned what he saw as hypocrisy, malpractices, and dogma in all religions, including his own, and he was a tireless advocate for social reform in religion.

Some of his comments on various religions are: "Thus if I could not accept Christianity either as a perfect, or the greatest religion, neither was I then convinced of Hinduism being such. Hindu defects were pressingly visible to me.This decision was deeply influenced by the philosophy of Brahmacharya — spiritual and practical purity — largely associated with celibacy and asceticism. Gandhi maintained this was because of the sin committed by upper caste Hindus by not letting untouchables in their temples Gandhi was committed to the cause of improving the fate of untouchables, referring to them as Harijans, people of Krishna.

He subsequently wore a dhoti for the rest of his life to express the simplicity of his life. But this book clears all the complex things mentioned in the unabridged version. A picked column advanced from the crowd, waded the ditches and approached the barbed wire stockade This new campaign was not universally embraced within the Dalit community, however, as prominent leader B. Non-cooperation movement Gandhi employed non-cooperation, non-violence and peaceful resistance as his "weapons" in the struggle against British.

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