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para a produção de bioplásticos. Paulo Costa Lemos surfactantes, resinas, adesivos, bio-plásticos e polímeros . O laboratório de Tecnologia Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Springer, New York,. USA. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader Alternatively, you can also download the PDF file directly to your computer. #70 Create an HTML Table of Contents from PDF Bookmarks the PDF page of interest. This kind of seamless integration of HTML and PDF pages requires some.
Odelius, M. Hakkarainen and L. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering Heinrich, M. Raberg and A. Beneroso, J. Fang, R.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis Yang, K.
Hakkarainen Microwave assisted reaction in green solvents recycles PHB to functional chemicals. ACS Sustainable Chem. Westerhoff, A. Brooks, E.
Simeonidis, R. He, F. Boogerd, V.
Jackson, V. Goncharuk and A. Kolodkin Macromolecular networks and intelligence in microorganisms. Frontiers in Microbiology Volume 5: article pp. Valderrama, V. Shingler, M. The energy consumption is considerable with an estimated U. With the plastic industry being a heavy energy consumer, the greenhouse effect will continue to impact on the environment.
The use of petroleum based resins is an issue that requires attention in order to mitigate the global warming effects. Microalgae can be commercialized for the production of both Energy and Bio-plastic. The realization that fossil fuels are fast depleting has accelerated the search for an alternative energy source that is renewable, economical, and environmentally friendly. The situation has been exacerbated by global warming which has brought it home to all that there is a need to conserve energy and reduce collectively mans global carbon footprint.
The instability in the regions from which the fossil fuels are sourced is another cause for concern Alga culture concerns mainly microalgae. Seaweeds also have many commercial and industrial uses but due to their size and the specific requirements of the environment in which they need to grow, they dont lend themselves as readily to cultivation The open pond system was employed in the development of algae.
The ponds were left undisturbed until a thick mass had formed. This system of cultivation was used as it was relatively cheap compared to other methods like single layer. Those that indicated high levels of growth and photosynthetic activity were obtained.
Green algae are one of the largest groups of algae with close to more than seven thousand five hundred species. These algae contain chlorophyll like in plants and a large amount of proteins.
In addition, under stress conditions they produce starch and oil that are stored inside the cell Any form of impurity was removed by hand and cleaned with clean water. The fresh samples were air dried for two weeks. After they were very dry, they were crushed into powder form. Sweet Potato Flour Collection and Preparation: Sweet potato root tubers were collected from different farms around Baraton.
Two species of the potatoes were identified; Red skinned and white skinned. The tubers were cleaned to remove any form of dirt. They were then sliced into small pieces. The sweet potato tubers were sundried for two weeks. The dried tubers were taken for grinding in a mill. After the starch preparations had been weighed and equal amounts of DI water had been added, the beakers were labelled and left for about three minutes to form slurry.
Algae slurry was prepared by weighing g, g, g, 75g, 50g and 25g of algae powder was poured into four different beakers labelled A, B, C, D, E and F, 20ml, 30ml, 40ml, 50ml, 60ml and 75 ml of distilled water was added to the green slurry. The slurry is heated with stirring and the starch slurry is added with constant stirring.
The mixtures are carefully brought to boil gently for 15minutes. The concentrations of the sweet potato flour and algae were varied to obtain desired strengths and the effect of the plasticizer on the elasticity and moulding ability. An anhydroglucose molecule of starch contains two secondary and one primary hydroxyl group. These hydroxyls can react easily with a wide range of compounds such as acid anhydrides, organic chlorocompounds, aldehydes, epoxy, and ethylene compounds.
Chemicals of these classes having two or more of the reactive groups may react with two or more hydroxyls of the starch molecules.
The products are called crosslinked starches. Crosslinking results in a reduction of the solubility in water and to thickening, leading to higher viscosities Starch-based bio-plastics strength can be improved by employing different processes which can be summarized as follows; Acetylation which is carried out by dissolving the starch in water, adjusting the pH to 8.
Oxidation is carried out by dissolving the starch in water, raising the pH to 9. Acid thinning is carried out by creating slurry of starch in 0.
Once the mixture is homogenous and viscous, pour it into well-labelled Petri dishes and spread it to dry, it takes about one day or two days at room temperature. Propane-1, 2, 3-triol was added as a plasticizer, from the products obtained, the biopolymer obtained without the plasticizer was brittle and rigid. The polymers obtained from high concentrations of algae showed relatively high strength and a deep black colour.
The durability and elasticity varied as per the amount of algae used. It was evident that high algae levels produced quality organic plastics. High sweet potato starch content in the organic plastic produced a white thick film suitable for food packaging. The high algae plastic could be commercialized for the production of materials, which require relative strength. With a few modifications, these polymeric materials can be converted to different shapes.
The bioplastics formed did not degrade at room temperatures which could indicate their significance and ability to withstand humidity and microbial decay at normal storage conditions. The products obtained from the research can be a breakthrough as building blocks for other forms of polymer industry.
Bioplastic starch can be produced from polylactic acid which has the advantage of biodegradation. However, due to the number of processing steps, the comparative cost of making PLA is high and a cheaper and more sustainable alternative is thermoplastic starch TPS.
This is formed by integrating small charged organic compounds into the starch structure. Examples of suitable compounds are water, glycerol and urea Organic plastics can be obtained from different sources including the agricultural feedstock as shown by the closed loop life cycle diagram in figure 1. Biopolymers have existed since time immemorial however; the method of production and handling has been a challenge to the research world.
There have been a lot of prospects to develop a durable bioplastic with the feature more less the same as the conventional petroleum polymers with the advantage of biodegradation.
The world economy is partially sustained by this important asset, which has a functionality that cannot be replaced by other materials. Most plastics are robust and last for hundreds of years. They have replaced metals in the components of most manufactured goods, including for such products as computers, car parts and refrigerators, and in so doing have often made the products cheaper, lighter, safer, stronger and easier to recycle.
Plastics have taken over from paper, glass and cardboard in packaging, usually reducing cost and carbon emissions while also providing better care of the items that they protect. In spite of these numerous advantages, conventional plastic offers counterbalancing disadvantages such as, Plastic litter disfigures the oceans and the coastlines, Plastics use valuable resources of oil, the plastics industry uses large amounts of energy, usually from fossil fuel sources which therefore adds to the worlds production of greenhouse gases, The manufacturing of conventional plastics uses substantial amounts of toxic chemicals and plastics leach small amounts of pollutants, including endocrine disruptors, into the environment.
These chemicals can have severe effects on animals and humans. Bioplastics - partly or wholly made from biological materials and not crude oil - represent an effective way of keeping the huge advantages of conventional plastics but mitigating their disadvantages. Some bioplastics degrade in the open air, others are made so that they compost in an industrial composting plant, aided by fungi, bacteria and enzymes.
Others mimic the robustness and durability of conventional plastics such as polyethylene or PET. Bioplastics can generally be directly substituted for their oil-based equivalent.
Bioplasticos y Algas
Indeed, they can generally be made to be chemically identical to the standard industrial plastics Bioplastics sector registers continuous growth: As estimated by IBAW, pan-European consumption of bioplastics in was at 40, tons. This indicates that consumption has doubled from Compostable waste bags and starch based loose fill had the biggest share of overall consumption in Europe.
For the first time bio packaging made a substantial contribution to market growth. Especially in Great Britain, Italy and the Netherlands the market development was dynamic Growth will be fuelled by a number of factors, including consumer demand for more environmentally-sustainable products, the development of biobased feedstock for commodity plastic resins, and increasing restrictions on the use of non-degradable plastic products, particularly plastic bags. Most important, however, will be the expected continuation of high crude oil and natural gas prices, which will allow bioplastics to become more cost-competitive with petroleum-based resins The production of bioplastics is small but growing.
The world produces over million tonnes per annum tpa of plastics. Europe consumes approximately 53 million tpa and, specifically, the UK processes around five million tonnes per annum of plastics. At the moment bioplastics make up only approximately 0.
Worldwide bioplastic production is approximately thousand tonnes per annum which equates to about 0. European Bioplastics predict that the worldwide bioplastics market will exhibit a sixfold expansion by A hundred billion tons of biomass is produced by plants per year.
To put that in perspective the global consumption of plastics is million tons Bioplastic is one of the breakthroughs of polymer research. Resorting to bio-based polymers and sustainable sources of plastics has lead to reduction in carbon emissions.
The Kyoto Protocol outlined the need for countries to embrace environmentally friendly sources of energy in order to cut down on the carbon footprint. The biodegradation processes occurs in three steps: Fragmentation Physical Degradation , Mineralization-Conversion of Organic Carbon, and Standardization 1.
The organic plastic produced from the sweet potato starch and algae was left for more than a year away from direct sunlight, water and under room temperature. The process of biodegradation of a material varies considerably depending on the environment in which it takes place e. Conditions such as temperature, humidity and the combination of micro-organisms play an important role if a certain degradation level is required within a given timeframe.
The temperature for industrial composting might be around 60 C compared to only about 20 C in fresh water or soil Fig. Algae based bio fuels are often quoted as the only plausible bio fuel solution to the world's oil crisis. But the economic viability of algae fuels is still in doubt. There is high potential in the algae plant ranging from bioplatics, food supplements to biofuel production. More research work ought to be undertaken to ascertain the significance of the starch-algae plastic, viable applications and Strength.Herdman Roger C.
The temperature for industrial composting might be around 60 C compared to only about 20 C in fresh water or soil Fig. There is high potential in the algae plant ranging from bioplatics, food supplements to biofuel production. Valderrama, V. Raberg, D. The realization that fossil fuels are fast depleting has accelerated the search for an alternative energy source that is renewable, economical, and environmentally friendly.
May God bless all those who made this research successful. The third option is a radical, which is an atom with a single non-bonded electron in its valence orbital. It's all very simple: send your idea or project to Bio-on for selection using the form on this website.
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